When we think of project change, the first thing that jumps to mind is scope change. While managing project scope plays a significant part in keeping your project on track, you might also encounter other changes along the way, such as:
- Changes to your target delivery date and project milestones.
- Cost changes, for people or other resources required to deliver the project.
- Technical changes, e.g. a shift to a new technology or software.
- Change in assumptions, e.g. about who your target audience is, which might lead to;
- Change in priorities.
- New rules and regulations, such as the EU’s new General Data Protection Regulations that recently came into effect.
- People leaving the project and/or new people joining the team.
Essentially, a change is anything, that will have an impact on other aspects of your project—most notably the project schedule, the budget, the scope and resourcing.
Embrace change - it’s inevitable
Whether a change is big or small, one thing is inevitable: There will always be changes in a project.
It’s impossible to know everything upfront. (If you did, your job would be obsolete. ;)) Change is a product of learning and you, your team and your client will learn new things everyday as the project progresses. Rather than seeing it as something that should be avoided at all cost, see it as something that has the potential to make your project outcome better.
10 tips to manage project change
Managing changes is important, no matter what project methodology you use to deliver your project. If changes are not assessed, discussed and appropriately dealt with they can lead to unrecoverable schedule slips, resource conflicts and cost overruns
Here are 10 essential tips to manage change on client projects:
1. Know your baseline
The baseline is your initial plan that you have agreed upon with your client. It is documented in your statement of work and should include:
- scope and high level requirements
- goals and objectives
- project schedule
- key milestones
- target delivery dates
2. Know your client’s priorities
Make sure you agree with your client on what’s important. Firstly, understand how fixed the scope, budget and timings are. Secondly, take a look at the scope and determine with your client which requirements are absolute must-haves in order to achieve the objectives, and which ones are nice-to-haves. This will inform your change process (see below) and will help you assess and communicate the impact of changes further down the track.
3. Define the change process
At the start of the project, outline to your client how you will be dealing with changes in general, and scope changes in particular, and document it in your statement of work or initiation document. This doesn’t need to be anything elaborate, but at a minimum you should outline:
- that changes are inevitable (you can never tell this to your client too many times!)
- how you define change.
- how you will be dealing with changes throughout the project.
- who can request changes; and
- who will sign-off on changes.
Ideally you want to put together the change process with your client, to ensure you have their buy in and everyone understands what’s involved.
4. Know the decision makers
Make sure you are talking to the right people at the client side and understand who the decision makers are. This ties in with the point above - who will sign-off on change? It’s not uncommon that the client side project lead can sign-off on changes to some level, but needs to bring in their manager if budget changes exceed a certain $ amount.
5. Document changes
Information about a change can come to you in lots of different ways. The client might request the change directly—in a meeting, via email or over the phone. Or you might come across it during a team meeting, e.g. when your tech lead mentions that changing the technical architecture would make the project more robust in the long-term.
A good practice is to document all changes in a change log so you don’t lose track of them. There’s lots of free templates out there you can use. I personally like a girl’s guide to project management’s change log template as it’s nice and simple. I’d also recommend using a G-sheet or Smartsheet so you can easily share your change log with stakeholders and collaborate on it with your team.
6. Communicate about change - early and often
Make sure to tell your clients about possible changes as soon as you learn about them. Review the change log with your client during your weekly meeting, and include an update in your status report.
7. Review the change and assess impact
Once you have come across and documented a request for change, you, or someone on your team, will need to take a look at the potential impact on scope, schedule, delivery dates, budget, quality and resources. Collect all the facts, then put together a recommendation so you and your client can make an informed decision on how to move forward. One thing to be aware of when dealing with lots of change requests is the “impact of the impact”. It’s most likely that the people on your team will be involved in assessing the impact of change, which will take them away from their current work.
8. Get approval
Make sure you have an audit trail / formal process for signing off on changes so there are no misunderstandings.
9. Go ahead with the changed plan
Lastly, once the change is approved, go ahead and update your project plan, budget tracker, schedule and any other documentation you use to track and report on your project.
10. Beware of all the little things creeping in
I don’t know about you, but “just” seems to be my client’s favourite word. “Can’t you just quickly do this?”, “It’s just changing the copy.”, “Can’t you just copy and past this from another project?” Doing your client a little favour here and there is totally fine and can help you build a good working relationship. But remember, you’re not running a charity, and lots of small changes will add up, so don’t be afraid to say no and stick to your process.